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The routing algorithms and forwarding belong to level 3 of the OSI model and have the capability to route packets.
The layered model (OSI) is formed by 7 steps, starting from the lowest (physical) at the highest (application).This model is only theoretical and tries to give a shot to the various high-level functions that must be present in the network. For example, the physical layer concerns the cables etc..
In this course we focus on network layer (network), which, according to the OSI model, discusses the problems of internet working, that takes care of routing messages on the network correctly. At level 3 you work with incoming packets in the router, that would be routed to the correct output to reach its destination. At Level 3 is also necessary, a system fault detection, which allows a solution to the problems you might encounter.
The main problem is that the OSI schema is a logical model, but in reality has never been followed to the letter.There are, in fact, technologies that make routing at level 3 or other routing that are at level 2.

Routing and forwarding
For routing is the ability to configure the network paths to follow to reach any destination in the network. It means that for every single node of the network is given the list of nodes subsequent to any other destination.
The routing information, useful to routers to direct traffic, must be transported in special packages, within the network. They are traveling together to the data and overhead: the costs are to be considered as decreasing network performance.
The forwarding is, however, the concept that underlies the routing. According to this principle, given a node, all incoming packets are forwarded to the next node, based on the information contained within a routing table inside the router itself.
A layer 3 packet forwarding can be divided into:
-Phase packet forwarding - routing.
-Phase in which the network takes the incoming traffic and disposes to the destination.
From a conceptual point of view there are differences between routing and forwarding, in that the former is a process of co-operative, in which all the routers must work together to find the path that must perform a package. In the second case, each node must perform a procedure, that is to consult a table and send packets to the correct output.

Among these algorithms is preferred by the forwarding network, as is the fast, simple and scalable. In addition, the forwarding is used in IP networks. The label swapping forwarding allows networks of quality and is used in networks "core" of the operators. The source routing is now in disuse, although Ipv3 and IPv6 can operate in this mode.

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