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In case of malfunction it is necessary that the data in secondary memory are not lost or inconsistent.
The problem of data consistency is caused by the fact that manycurrent data are not always contained in secondary storage, but are present in main memory or cache. To avoid that entire file system prove inconsistent, when the system is started, a special program (the consistency checker) checks that the datacorrespond to those described in the directory from the directoriesthemselves. When the program encounters of the incoherence, it attempts to correct them.

A popular method to prevent data loss in case of malfunction, is the creation of backups (backup) periodically, to ensure therestore operation. To avoid having to copy the entire file systemto any changes, you can use incremental backups.

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