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A file system has the duty to provide mechanisms to access andstore files. It resides in secondary memory, and must be able tocontain large amounts of data. When designing a file systemencountered two problems immediately:

-The file system must occur in an intuitive user must allow some basic functionality and should allow the user to logically organize their files.

-The file system must use efficient algorithms and data structuresthat can match the fs logical with the physical device on which to reside.

Normally the structure of a file system is layered.
Each layer uses the underlying layers to create higher levels:
-device. The device on which the file system.
-controller I / O. E 'consists of device drivers and interrupthandlers of signals and allows you to transfer information fromsecondary memory to main memory and vice versa.
id-based file systems, which has the purpose of sending to the controller the high-level commands specific to read and writespecific physical blocks.
-form of organization of the file, it has the purpose of translatingthe logical memory blocks in physical memory blocks.
-logical file system, it is designed to manage the directory structure and organize your files into the appropriate structures.
applications that use the file-system.

For example, adopting UNIX UFS, which is based on FFS.Windows and optical media using FAT, FAT32, NTFS.
Linux can support more than forty file system, the standard is called EXT3. There are also distributed file systems.

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