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In all P2P clients are also servers, meaning that download information while leaving the possibility for other clients to download information from them.
A first example of application that is based on this principle is Napster, in which each peer connects and informs the central server of its IP and its contents. When someone needs a file, itasks the server, which responds with the location. The problem is that the location of the file is centralized.

Gnutella is rather fully distributed, so no centralized servers, but is based on the principle that x and y are connected if they have a TCP connection in common. All peers are active in the overlay.The research protocol is recursive (depth-first search) with alimited flooding.

Kazaa is similar to gnutella but there are groups of peer, each of which is provided with a group leader. The leader has a TCP connection with each of her children and two other leaders. Inthis way each leader know the contents of its edge peers. Each file has a descriptor hash in your database, if p present the keyresearch leader asks others online. When someone finds an answer that refers to the customer who downloads a copy ofHTTP.

In p2p structured information on the individual files are put in aspecific position depending on the ID. The ID is used as search key words are also single key to be used in research. The research, since it is based on distributed Hash Table (DHT), is very fast but suffers in the case where the peer come outfrequently (churn). In the case where the peer disconnects, its index must be passed to its neighbors. Who has a new filehashes and stores it in the peer that the index for that hash.

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