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Physical networks - Digital Logic
Physical networks: transfer and routing is done at the MAC layer;
Logical networks: the source and recipient share the first part of the IP address.
In terms of physical and logical IP networks are not in correspondence. You can have multiple logical networks for the same physical network.

Architecture IP networks
The networks are distinct and independent entities, interconnected through a system of physical interconnection. A network is an abstract entity whose members are able to exchange messages. There are different types of networks depending on the manner in which the nodes communicate, for they can be connected via direct links or by using intermediate devices. Appartententi between nodes on the same subnet communication is direct, but the outside is via intermediate nodes.

To recognize the various interfaces of different nodes, with each interface is assigned a unique IP address. Among the IP networks we can find different types:
- Point to point
- With the possibility of multi-access broadcast: do not use intermediate routers and use the ARP
- Without the possibility of multi-access broadcast: do not use ARP and use mapping algorithms.

IP Classes
it was decided to divide them into blocks, where the first number indicating what type of address can be referred.
CLASS A: 0-NET address (8BIT)-Host (0-127)
CLASS B: NET 10-Address (16BIT)-Host (128-191)
CLASS C: 110-NET address (24bit)-Host (192-223)
CLASS D: 1110-Multicast Address (224-239)
CLASS: 1111 - Reserved (240-255)
Is given by a particular address 127.0.0.0 / 8. It is an address used for testing for client / server on the same machine or to send TCP / IP packets to themselves and for broadcast.

Subnetting
To resolve the classes, using the subnet mask. Are made for network and subnetwork 1, 0 for the bits at the host. Normally 1 are all close at the beginning of the address. In this way you can have a classless addressing. To assign an IP network must satisfy two constraints.

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