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ICMP is an additional protocol to IP, but necessary for its operation. Means ICMP Internet Control Message Protocol, andhas the purpose of ensuring communication between the IP stack. Some functions are those of verifficare network status, report anomalies, discovering the netmask, improve routing.

Routing is a problem that affects both user machines, and routers. There are different types of routing. It has direct routingif the recipient and sender are within the same subnet, otherwise it is indirect addressing. In order for the routing of packets to be successful hosts must know the IP address of a router on thesubnet to which to send all packets equally. The router receivesthe packets and if the recipient is present in the subnet sends the packet otherwise the packet goes to the "best" next stop routing.It is chosen according to a routing table that lists all interfaces"best" for each type of address.
If the router is inside a local network addressing is via MAC addresses. For each MAC is associated with an IP, by means of the ARP protocol. The broadcast is similar connections to local networks.

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