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The CPU is the unit that is responsible for loading and executing programs: each instruction is broken down intoa series of microinstructions or elementary steps. Each instruction is also divided into two parts:

  • Fetch: load the instruction pointed to by the ProgramCounter and updating the same
  • Execute: execution of microinstructions corresponding


All operations can be performed with 4 operations:

  • Transfer between directors
  • Withdrawal of a word from memory
  • Saving a word in memory
  • Performing a logical / arithmetic


Each signal must remain active for a certain period of time, taking into account the delays of the various devicesconnected. Normally, the processors are divided into twoparts:

  • Control unit, generates the signals that drive all the devices on the basis of the signals coming from the processor and from the outside. The UC is a state machine, which has as inputs C'in (the signals from the outside) in C'' (the signals from the processing unit);
  • Processing unit, containing registers, logic operations,the memories
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